University of Geneva

Acronym: UNIGE

Address: Rue De-Candolle 5, 1205 Genève, Switzerland

Website: https://unige.ch/

Stakeholder group: Academia & think tanks

The University of Geneva (UNIGE) offers more than 280 types of degrees and more than 250 continuing education programmes covering an extremely wide variety of fields across exact sciences, medicine, and humanities.

Digital activities

The university has incorporated digital technology into its strategy and appointed a vice-rector in charge of defining and piloting digital initiatives in the fields of education, research, and services to society. Its digital strategy focuses on three dimensions of digital technology: digital technology for teaching and research, digital solutions for open and connected science and digital expertise in the service fo society.

It also provides courses focusing on digital law, and it has been very active in research related to applied physics and quantum cryptography.

More information on the university’s digital strategy can be found at the dedicated page.

Digital policy issues

Capacity development 

 In an attempt to develop digital skills of its community, the University of Geneva has put in place a series of measures to meet the needs of its students, researchers, administrative staff, and other community members. To this end, the university offers a series of courses on digital technologies and related issues, participates in a number of projects, and provides training and workshops on particular digital skills and tools. It is also developing and deploying its Open Science roadmap.

Moreover, the university created a Digital Law Center (DLC) at the Faculty of Law over the course of implementing its digital strategy. The DLC provides courses focused on the Internet and law. It also organises its annual Digital Law Summer School, where participants can discuss digital law and policy issues such as cybersecurity, privacy, freedom of expression, and intellectual property with leading experts from academia and international organisations. Every year since 2016, the university has organised the Geneva Digital Law Research Colloquium (which is run by the DLC in co-operation with other leading academic centers, including the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University). This event is a scientific workshop that gives an opportunity to selected next generation digital law and policy researchers to present and discuss various digital policy issues such as freedom of expression online, copyright, and the Internet of Things with senior high level experts.

Leveraging its multidisciplinary culture, the university has recently created a transversal Data Science Competence Center aiming at federating competencies from all faculties and enabling cross-fertilisation between various disciplines to develop advanced research and services.

The university has also developed a Digital Innovation Incubation Programme that supports residency periods for its members at swissnex San Francisco to enhance the links with the Bay Area.

The university has created a portal for online and blended learning with a set of resources to help tutors prepare their courses and classes. Some of the resources are intended for self-training, while others provide users with training/coaching opportunities with University of Geneva e-learning and blended learning experts.

Digital tools

The university maintains an IT Service Catalogue where students can access all digital tools the university provides, such as the UNIGE Mobile App, UNIGE Portal, UNIGE’s data storage system, and many others.

The University of Geneva also offers a number of online courses.

 Future of Meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

  • The university plans to extend its Zoom license, which was initially acquired for one semester, until the end of the 2020/2021 academic year. Some exams have taken place online.

Any reference to holding meetings outside HQ?

  • The university is using online platforms for e-conferences and plans to deploy them in order to provide alternatives to in-person meetings.

United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research

Acronym: UNIDIR

Address: Palais des Nations 1211 Geneva 10 Switzerland

Website: https://unidir.org

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

Founded in 1980, the United Nations Institute for Disarmament Research (UNIDIR) is an autonomous institute within the UN, conducting independent research on disarmament and related problems.

Digital Activities

UNIDIR is concerned with cybersecurity, such as threats and vulnerabilities related to information and communication technologies (ICTs), and the use of new technologies such as artificial intelligence (AI) applications in warfare. It supports the UN GGE and OEWG processes. It focuses on research and awareness raising on this topic with a broad range of stakeholders and maps the cybersecurity policy landscape.

Digital policy issues

Cybersecurity 

UNIDIR’s Security and Technology Programme (SecTec) builds knowledge and raises awareness on the security implications of new and emerging technologies. Cyber stability is one area of focus for UNIDIR. Key topics include electronic and cyberwarfare, the role of regional organisations in strengthening cybersecurity, and the exploitation of ICT threats and vulnerabilities. UNIDIR provides technical and expert advice to the chairpersons of the UN GGE and OEWG on norms, international law, confidence-building measures, capacity building, co-operation, and institutional dialogue. The annual cyber stability conference brings various stakeholders together to promote a secure and stable cyberspace and in particular the role of the UN GGE and OWEG. In addition, UNIDIR organises a series of workshops on the role of regional organisations in strengthening cybersecurity and cyber stability. The Cyber Policy Portal is an online confidence-building tool that maps the cybersecurity policy landscape, fostering transparency and reducing the risk of conflict in cyberspace.

Artificial intelligence 

‘AI and the weaponisation of increasingly autonomous technologies’ is one of the current research areas of UNIDIR, which aims to raise awareness and build capacities of various stakeholders, including member states, technical communities, academia, and the private sector. Research on AI covers a broad range of topics from human decision-making, autonomous vehicles, and swarm technologies.

Future of Meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

Digital tools

Cyber Policy Portal

International Committee of the Red Cross

Acronym: ICRC

Address: Av. de la Paix 19, 1202 Genève, Switzerland

Website: https://icrc.org

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

Established in 1863, the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is an independent international humanitarian organisation headquartered in Geneva. The ICRC defends and promotes the respect of international humanitarian law (IHL) and is dedicated to protecting the lives and dignity of victims of war and to the provision of assistance. Along these lines, it co-operates with governments, the private sector, and other entities affected by international and internal armed conflict and violence.

Together with the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and 190 individual national societies, the ICRC makes up the so-called International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement.

Digital Activities

Digitalisation is increasingly present in the context of armed conflict and violence: States use cyber operations and artificial intelligence (AI) as part of warfare and humans are affected by the consequences of such operations and other digital risks. To this end, humanitarian organisations also use digital tools to improve their operations. The ICRC addresses the implications of technology which are multifold and range from data protection for humanitarian actions to the application of IHL to cyber operations in armed conflict. It hosts expert and intergovernmental discussions and has developed a number of (digital) tools to help improve awareness and understanding of IHL and relevant standards.

The ICRC co-operates with other organisations on digital policy issues.

Digital policy issues

Artificial intelligence 
The ICRC has also explored the role of AI tools in armed conflict. In a document titled ‘Artificial intelligence and machine learning in armed conflict: A human-centred approach’ published in 2019, it argues that ‘any new technology of warfare must be used, and must be capable of being used, in compliance with existing rules of international humanitarian law.’ It also touches upon the use of AI and machine learning technologies capable of controlling physical military hardware. It argues that from a humanitarian perspective, autonomous weapon systems (AWS) are of particular concern given that humans may not be able to exert control over such weapons or the resulting use of force. While the ICRC recognises that not all weapon systems incorporate AI or machine learning, it emphasises that such software components could eventually give way to future AWS. It also emphasises the potential misuse of AI and machine learning in the development of cyber weapons and capabilities. The ICRC calls for a human control-based approach to the application of AI and machine learning in AWS.

The question of AI has been further explored in other reports such as its ‘Autonomy, artificial intelligence, robotics: Technical aspects of human control’.

Cyberoperations during armed conflict 

The use of cyber operations during armed conflicts is a reality in today’s armed conflicts and their use is likely to increase in future. Through expert discussions, participation in intergovernmental processes, and bilateral confidential dialogue, the ICRC is raising awareness of the potential human cost of cyber operations and the application of IHL to cyber operations during armed conflict. Its efforts on this matter data back to over two decades ago. Ever since, the ICRC holds the view that IHL limits cyber operations ‘during armed conflict just as it limits the use of any other weapon, means and methods of warfare in an armed conflict, whether new or old.’

Over the years, the ICRC has been actively involved in global policy discussions on cyber-related issues, including those held within the UN (various GGEs and the OEWG). The ICRC has also been an observer in the expert processes that developed the Tallinn Manuals. More recently, the ICRC has organised expert meetings and developed reports on ‘The Potential Human Cost of Cyber Operations’ and on ‘Avoiding Civilian Harm from Military Cyber Operations during Armed Conflicts’ (forthcoming). Its legal views on how IHL applies to cyber operations during armed conflict are found in a 2019 position paper that was sent to all UN member states in the context of the different UN-mandated processes on information and communication technology security. The ICRC’s Law and Policy blog maintains an ongoing blog series on the potential human cost of cyber operations, featuring tech expert, legal, and policy perspectives.

Privacy and data protection 

The ICRC plays an active role in regard to privacy and data protection in the context of humanitarian action. The ICRC has a data protection framework compliant with international data protection standards that aims to protect individuals from a humanitarian standpoint. The framework consists of ICRC Rules on Data Protection, which were revised in 2020 in response to the rapid development of digital technologies, while supervisory and control mechanisms are overseen by an independent data protection commission and a data protection officer.

Despite the wide range of data sources employed and dealt with by the ICRC, specific attention is dedicated to biometric data which is often used in forensics and the restoration of family links. In order to manage this highly sensitive information and to ensure the responsible deployment of new technologies (including new biometric identification techniques), the ICRC has adopted a Biometrics Policy, which sets out the roles and responsibilities of the ICRC and defines the legitimate bases and specified purposes for the processing of biometric data.

Data protection is also addressed by the ICRC Handbook on Data Protection in Humanitarian Action. The Handbook provides suggestions how existing data protection principles apply to humanitarian organisations and builds on existing regulations, working procedures, and practices. The second edition of the document specifically provides guidance on the technical aspects of data protection by design and by default and covers technological security measures. In addition, it also addresses through dedicated chapters the potential and risks of digital technology such as blockchain, AI, digital identity, and connectivity for data protection in humanitarian action. The ICRC recently hosted a digital launch event for the second edition of the handbook focusing on data protection and COVID-19.

The ICRC further explored the issue of data and privacy in a joint report that it published with Privacy International titled ‘The humanitarian metadata problem: ‘Doing no harm in the digital era.’ The report looks into how different types of metadata are derived from internal and external humanitarian exchanges (i.e. exchanges between humanitarian organisations and individuals affected by armed conflict and violence or communication within humanitarian organisations) through telecommunications and messaging, cash transfer programmes, and how social media can be accessed and misused for profiling of individuals, surveillance, repression, or commercial exploitation. In line with the humanitarian ‘do no harm’ principle, the report underscores that the humanitarian community has to consider that there is a risk that it can hinder the safety and the rights of persons needing protection when using digital technologies. The ICRC also hosted an event on this topic, the Digital Risk Symposium, which was hosted in London in December 2018. The event explored what organisations can do to ensure they do not create additional vulnerabilities for people already at risk, as well as the potential for collaboration in the sector.

More recently, the ICRC has been involved in the Road to Bern via Geneva dialogues ahead of the 2020 World Data Forum. As part of its contribution, the ICRC collaborated with the World Intellectual Property Organization in the second dialogue dedicated to data collection entitled ‘Protecting data against vulnerabilities: Questions of trust security and privacy of data’. Specific attention was paid to three challenges: data anonymisation, loss of data through cloud processing, and limited use of biometric data.

Digital tools

The ICRC has argued in favour of digitalisation of the Geneva Conventions and on the occasion of the 70th anniversary of these very treaties and additional protocols, released an IHL digital app. The app provides access to over 75 treaties including the Geneva Conventions, and allows users to read through the content and therefore familiarise themselves with the text. The ICRC has a number of databases on IHL including its customary IHL database and the ICRC national implementation database.

Online learning is also used by the ICRC to promote the implementation of IHL. In 2019, it launched an e-learning course entitled ‘Introduction to International Humanitarian Law’ that is aimed at non-legal practitioners, policymakers, and other professionals who are interested in the basics of IHL. Other online courses are available through the ICRC training centre as well as e-briefings which are available on its e-briefing library.

The ICRC also maintains a digital library and an app with all ICRC publications in English and French.

United Nations Conference on Trade and Development

Acronym: UNCTAD

Address: Palais des Nations, Av. de la Paix 8-14, 1211 Genève, Switzerland

Website: https://unctad.org

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is a UN body dedicated to supporting developing countries in accessing the benefits of a globalised economy more fairly and effectively. It provides analysis, facilitates consensus-building, and offers technical assistance, thus helping countries use trade, investment, finance, and technology to support inclusive and sustainable development.

UNCTAD also works to facilitate and measure progress towards achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs), through a wide range of activities in areas such as technology and innovation, trade, investment, environment, transport and logistics, and the digital economy.

UNCTAD’s work often results in analyses and recommendations that can inform national and international policy-making processes, and contribute to promoting economic policies aimed at ending global economic inequalities and generating human-centric sustainable development.

Digital Activities

UNCTAD is particularly active in the field of e-commerce, trade, and the digital economy, carrying out a wide range of activities from research and analysis to providing assistance to member states in developing adequate legislative frameworks and facilitating international dialogue on the development opportunities and challenges associated with the digital economy. UNCTAD also works to facilitate and measure progress towards achieving the SDGs, in particular through (but not limited to) its activities in the field of science, technology, and innovation (STI) for development. Consumer protection, gender equality, and privacy and data protection are other digital policy areas where UNCTAD is active.

Digital policy issues

E-commerce and trade 

UNCTAD’s work programme on e-commerce and the digital economy (ECDE Programme), encompasses several research and analysis, consensus building and technical assistance activities, as follows:

Research and analysis

UNCTAD conducts research and analysis on e-commerce and the digital economy and their implications for trade and development. These are mainly presented in its flagship publication, the Digital Economy Report (known as Information Economy Report until 2017), and in its Technical Notes on ICT for Development.

Consensus building on e-commerce and digital economy policies

UNCTAD’s Intergovernmental Group of Experts on E-commerce and the Digital Economy meets regularly to discuss ways to strengthen the development dimension of e-commerce and the digital economy. The group’s meetings are usually held in conjunction with the eCommerce Week, an annual event hosted by UNCTAD and featuring discussions on development opportunities and challenges associated with the digital economy.

E-Commerce assessments and strategy formulation

The eTrade Readiness Assessments (eT Readies) assist least developed countries (LDCs) and other developing countries in understanding their e-commerce readiness in key policy areas in order to better engage in and benefit from e-commerce. The assessments provide recommendations to overcome identified barriers and bottlenecks to growth and enjoying the benefits of digital trade.

UNCTAD’s work on information and communication technology (ICT) policy reviews and national e-commerce strategies involves technical assistance, advisory services, diagnostics, and strategy development on e-commerce, and national ICT planning at the request of governments. Through an analysis of the infrastructural, policy, regulatory, institutional, operational, and socioeconomic landscape, the reviews help governments to overcome weaknesses and bureaucratic barriers, leverage strengths and opportunities, and put in place relevant strategies.

Legal frameworks for e-commerce

UNCTAD’s E-commerce and Law Reform work helps to develop an understanding of the legal issues underpinning e-commerce through a series of capacity-building workshops for policymakers at the national and regional levels. Concrete actions include: Assistance in establishing domestic and regional legal regimes to enhance trust in online transactions, regional studies on cyber laws harmonisation, and the global mapping of e-commerce legislation through its ‘Global Cyberlaw Tracker’.

Measuring the information economy

UNCTAD’s work on measuring the information economy includes statistical data collection and the development of methodology, as well as linking statistics and policy through the Working Group on Measuring E-commerce and the Digital Economy, established by the Intergovernmental Group of Experts on E-Commerce and the Digital Economy. Figures are published in the biennial Digital Economy Report and the statistics portal UNCTADstat. Technical co-operation here aims to strengthen the capacity of national statistical systems to produce better, more reliable, and internationally comparable statistics on the following issues: ICT use by enterprises, size and composition of the ICT sector, and e-commerce and international trade in ICT-enabled services. UNCTAD also produces the B2C E-commerce Index which measures an economy’s preparedness to support online shopping.

Smart Partnerships through eTrade for all

The eTrade for all initiative (eT4a) is a global collaborative effort of 32 partners to scale up co-operation, transparency, and aid efficiency towards more inclusive e-commerce. Its main tool is an online platform (etradeforall.org), a knowledge-sharing and information hub that facilitates access to a wide range of information and resources on e-commerce and the digital economy. It offers a gateway for matching the suppliers of technical assistance with those in need. Beneficiaries can connect with potential partners, learn about trends, best practices, up-to-date e-commerce indicators, and upcoming events all in one place. The initiative also acts as catalyst of partnership among its members for increased synergies. This collaboration has concretely translated into the participation of several eT4a partners as key contributors to the various eCommerce Weeks organised by UNCTAD and in the conduct and review of eTrade Readiness Assessments.

Consumer protection 

Through its Competition and Consumer Policies Programme, UNCTAD works to assist countries in improving their competition and consumer protection policies. It provides a forum for intergovernmental deliberations on these issues, undertakes research, policy analysis and data collection, and provides technical assistance to developing countries. The Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Consumer Protection Law and Policy monitors the implementation of the UN Guidelines for Consumer Protection and carries out research and provides technical assistance on consumer protection issues (including in the context of e-commerce and the digital economy).

UNCTAD’s work programme on consumer protection is guided, among others, by the UN Conference of Competition and Consumer Protection (held every five years). In 2020, the conference will hold high-level consultations on strengthening consumer protection and competition in the digital economy, and international enforcement co-operation among consumer protection authorities in electronic commerce.

Given the significant imbalances in market power in the digital economy, competition policy is becoming increasingly relevant for developing countries. UNCTAD addresses this issue in the Intergovernmental Group of Experts on Competition Law and Policy.

UNCTAD also runs the Research Partnership Platform, aimed at contributing to the development of best practices in the formulation and implementation of competition and consumer protection laws and policies.

Sustainable development 

UNCTAD works to facilitate and measure progress towards achieving the SDGs, in particular through (but not limited to) its activities in the field of STI for development. The organisation supports countries in their efforts to integrate STI in national development strategies, through initiatives such as Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Reviews and capacity building programmes (such as the Innovation Policy Learning Programme). The eT4a initiative is also intended to contribute to several SDGs, especially in relation to decent work and economic growth, innovation and infrastructure, global partnerships, and gender equality. Moreover, UNCTAD’s SDG Pulse offers statistical information on developments related to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

UNCTAD’s Investment Policy Framework for Sustainable Development provides guidance for policymakers in formulating national investment policies and in negotiating investment agreements. The organisation is also part of the Toolbox for Financing for SDGs – a platform launched in 2018 at the initiative of the President of the UN General Assembly to assist countries and financial actors in exploring solutions to the challenges of financing the SDGs.

UNCTAD carries out research and analysis work covering various development-related issues, examples being its Digital Economy Report and the Technical notes on ICT for development. As the body responsible for servicing the UN Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CTSD), UNCTAD also assists the CSTD in its sustainable development-related work, for instance by preparing studies and reports on issues such as the impact of advanced technologies on sustainable development.

Other UNCTAD activities designed to contribute to sustainable development cover issues such as climate change, the circular economy, and intellectual property.

Capacity development 

Many activities undertaken by UNCTAD have a capacity development dimension. For instance, its work on e-commerce and trade includes supporting developing countries in establishing adequate legal frameworks in these areas (e.g. its eCommerce and Law Reform work) and in producing statistics that can guide effective policy-making (e.g. the Measuring E-commerce and the Digital Economy activities and the ICT Policy Reviews ). UNCTAD’s E-Learning on Trade platform provides courses and training on issues such as trade, gender and development and non-tariff measures in trade.

UNCTAD also works to build capacity in STI policy-making in developing countries, through initiatives such as the Innovation Policy Learning programme and STI training provided in the context of the P166 programme.

Additionally, UNCTAD’s Virtual Institute – run in co-operation with universities worldwide – is dedicated to building knowledge for trade and development. Another area where UNCTAD provides capacity building for developing countries is that of statistics: The organisation and its partners assist national statistics organisations in the collection, compilation and dissemination of their statistics in domains such as trade, sustainable development, and investments.

Gender rights online 

UNCTAD runs a Trade, Gender and Development Programme dedicated to assisting countries in developing and implementing gender-sensitive trade policies, conducting gender impact analyses of trade policies and agreements, and strengthening the links between trade and gender. One notable initiative is the eTrade for Women initiative, dedicated to advancing the empowerment of women through ICTs.

Other initiatives undertaken in this area include capacity building on trade and gender, the Women in STEM: Changing the narrative dialogues, and the  Data and statistics for more gender-responsive trade policies in Africa, the Caucasus and Central Asia project.

Data governance? 

As data has become a key resource in the digital economy, data governance is a fundamental part of the work of UNCTAD. This is illustrated, for example, in the research and analysis work of the Digital Economy Report 2019, which focused on the role of data as the source of value in the digital economy and how it is created and captured. Moreover, some of UNCTAD’s work on e-commerce and digital trade touches specifically on privacy and data protection issues. For instance, the eCommerce and Law Reform work dedicated to supporting developing countries in their efforts to establish adequate legal frameworks for e-commerce also covers data protection and privacy among the key issues addressed. The Global Cyberlaw Trackers offers information on data protection laws in UNCTAD member states.

Also relevant for data governance discussions is UNCTAD’s work on statistics, as the organisation collects and analyses a wide range of data on issues such as economic trends, international trade, population, and the digital economy. Moreover, UNCTAD’s SDG Pulse offers statistical information on developments related to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development.

UNCTAD is also running several projects focused on improving the efficiency of data management in the context of activities such as maritime trade (e.g. the Digitising Global Maritime Trade project) and customs operations (e.g. the Automated System for Customs Data).

Digital tools

 UNCTAD has developed several digital tools and online platforms in recent years. Examples include:

Future of meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

Any reference to deliberation or decision making online?

United Nations Human Rights Council

Acronym: UNHRC

Address: Palais Wilson 52, rue des Pâquis, CH-1201 Geneva, Switzerland

Website: https://www.ohchr.org/EN/HRBodies/HRC/Pages/HRCIndex.aspx

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

The Human Rights Council is a United Nations intergovernmental body whose mandate is to strengthen the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe, and to make recommendations on cases of human rights violations. The Council is made up of 47 member states, as elected by the UN General Assembly.

The Council works closely with the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), headed by the High Commissioner for Human Rights, who is the principal human rights official of the United Nation.

Freedom of expression and privacy in the online space are two of the issues covered by the Council in its activities. These have been discussed at UNHRC sessions, and covered in resolutions adopted by the Council, as well as in reports elaborated by the special rapporteurs appointed by the Council. The Special Rapporteur on the promotion and protection of the right to freedom of opinion and expression has issued reports on issues such as: the use of encryption and anonymity to exercise the rights to freedom of opinion and expression in the digital age; states’ surveillance of communications on the exercise of the human rights to privacy and to freedom of opinion and expression; the right to freedom of opinion and expression exercised through the Internet; etc. The Special Rapporteur on the righ to privacy has within its mandate the responsibility to make recommendations for the promotion and protection of the right to privacy, including in connection with challenges arising from new technologies.

World Trade Organization

Acronym: WTO

Address: Rue de Lausanne 154, 1202 Genève, Switzerland

Website: https://wto.org

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organisation that deals with the rules of trade among its members. Its main functions include: administering WTO trade agreements; providing a forum for trade negotiations; settling trade disputes; monitoring national trade policies; providing technical assistance and training for developing countries; and ensuring co-operation with other international organisations.

WTO Members have negotiated and agreed upon rules regulating international trade, fostering transparency and predictability in the international trading system. The main agreements are the Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the WTO, the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT); the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS); and the Agreement on Trade-related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS Agreement).

Digital Activities

Several Internet governance and digital trade policy related issues are discussed in the WTO. These include e-commerce, intellectual property (IP), and market access for information and communication technology (ICT) ICT products and services. E-commerce discussions are ongoing under the Work Programme on Electronic Commerce and among a group of members currently negotiating e-commerce rules under the Joint Statement on E-commerce. Discussions focus on several digital issues, including: data flows and data localisation; access to source code; cybersecurity; privacy; consumer protection; and customs duties on electronic transmissions.

As part of its outreach activities, the WTO organises an annual Public Forum, which brings together governments, non-governmental organisations, academics, businesses, and other stakeholders, for discussions on a broad range of issues, including many relating to the digital economy.

Digital policy issues

E-commerce and trade 

The WTO agreements cover a broad spectrum of trade topics, including some related to e-commerce, which has been on the WTO’s agenda since 1998 when the ministers adopted the Declaration on Global Electronic Commerce. The Declaration instructed the General Council to establish a Work Programme on electronic commerce. In that Declaration, members also agreed to continue the practice of not imposing customs duties on electronic transmissions (the ’moratorium’). The Work Programme provides a broad definition of e-commerce and instructs four WTO bodies to explore the relationship between WTO Agreements and e-commerce. The Work Programme and the moratorium have been periodically reviewed and renewed. In December 2019, the General Council agreed to reinvigorate the Work Programme and continue the moratorium until the Twelfth Ministerial Conference. In addition, members agreed to have structured discussions on all trade-related topics of interest brought forward by members, including on the scope, definition, and impact of the moratorium.

At the Eleventh Ministerial Conference in 2017, a group of members issued a Joint Statement on Electronic Commerce (JSI) to explore work towards future WTO negotiations on trade-related aspects of e-commerce. Following the exploratory work, in January 2019, 76 Members confirmed their ’intention to commence WTO negotiations on trade-related aspects of electronic commerce’ and to ’achieve a high standard outcome that builds on existing WTO agreements and frameworks with the participation of as many WTO Members as possible.’ Negotiations are continuing among 85 Members and are structured under 6 broad themes, namely: enabling digital trade/e-commerce; openness and digital trade/e-commerce; trust and digital trade/e-commerce; cross-cutting issues; telecommunications; and market access. Specific issues under discussion include provisions related to customs duties, paperless trading. cross-border transfers of information, spam, cybersecurity, electronic authentication and electronic signatures, location of computing facilities, consumer protection, protection of personal information, and market access.

Taxation 

WTO members agreed to a temporary moratorium on the imposition of customs duties on electronic transmissions at the Second WTO Ministerial Conference in the 1998  Geneva Ministerial Declaration. The moratorium has been extended periodically, including most recently in December 2019. While some WTO members argue that the moratorium should be made permanent, others have noted the need to clarify its scope and for further analysis of its impact; for example on development and customs revenues, especially given concerns that more types of physical goods could be digitised or transmitted digitally in the future. Other members have supported a more holistic approach to the moratorium, beyond the revenue implications.

Access 

Information Technology Agreement (ITA-I and ITA-II)

The ITA-I was concluded by 29 participants in 1996. Through this agreement, participating WTO members eliminated tariffs on several ICT products – including computers and mobile telephones – with the aim to intensify global competition among certain ICT goods allowing for greater access to the Internet and growth of the digital economy, including for least-developed countries. Currently, 82 WTO members are participants in ITA-I, accounting for approximately 97% of world trade in ITA-I products. At the Tenth WTO Ministerial Conference in Nairobi in 2015, over 50 WTO members concluded ITA-II, an agreement expanding the coverage of ITA-I by 201 tariff lines. ICT products such as optical lenses and GPS navigation equipment were added. The rationale of this product expansion was to keep the benefits of tariff elimination in touch with innovation. At present, the ITA-II consists of 55 WTO members, representing approximately 90% of world trade in ITA-II products. The ITA is being discussed in the JSI under the market access focus group.

Telecommunications infrastructure 

In 1997, WTO members successfully concluded negotiations on market access for basic telecommunications services through the GATS Annex on Telecommunications, which contains provisions to guarantee service suppliers access to and use of basic telecommunications needed to supply their services. Through a reference paper on regulatory principles, members also agreed to safeguard against anticompetitive practices by dominant suppliers of basic telecommunications. Since 1997, an increasing number of WTO members have undertaken commitments on telecommunications. Under the JSI negotiations, participants are discussing a proposal focused on telecommunications services, aiming to update provisions of the reference paper.

Digital standards 

International standards are important to the global digital economy as they can enable interconnectivity and interoperability for telecommunications and Internet infrastructures. The WTO Technical Barriers to Trade Agreement (TBT Agreement) aims to ensure that technical regulations, standards, and conformity assessment procedures affecting trade in goods (including telecommunications products) are non-discriminatory and do not create unnecessary obstacles to trade. The TBT Agreement strongly encourages that such regulatory measures be based on relevant international standards.

The TBT Committee serves as a forum where governments discuss and address concerns with specific regulations, including those affecting digital trade. Examples of relevant TBT measures notified to or discussed at the TBT Committee include: (i) measures addressing the Internet of Things (IoT) and related devices in terms of their safety, interoperability, national security/cybersecurity, performance, and quality; (ii) measures regulating 5G cellular network technology for reasons related to, among others, national security and interoperability; (iii) measures regulating 3D printing (additive manufacturing) devices; (iv) measures regulating drones (small unmanned aircraft systems) due to risks for humans/consumers, interoperability problems, and national security risks; and (v) measures dealing with autonomous vehicles, mostly concerned with their safety and performance.

Data governance 

The growth of the global digital economy is fuelled by data. Discussions on how provisions of WTO agreements apply to data flows are ongoing among WTO members. In this context, the GATS is particularly relevant, as it could apply to services such as: (i) data transmission and data processing by any form of technology (e.g. mobile or cloud technologies); (ii) new ICT business models such as infrastructure as a service (IaaS); (iii) online distribution services e.g. (e-commerce market platforms); and (iv) financial services such as mobile payments. The extent to which members can impose restrictions on data or information flows is determined by their GATS schedules of commitments. Under the JSI, proposals on cross-border data flows have been submitted and are being discussed. These proposals envision a general rule establishing free flow of data for the purpose of commercial activities. Proposed exceptions to this general rule are, for the most part, similar to the existing GATS General Exceptions and relate to, for example, protection of personal data, protection of legitimate public policy objectives, national security interests, and exclusion of governmental data. Issues related to data flows have also been raised by members in other contexts at the WTO, especially when national measures adopted for cybersecurity have been considered as trade barriers.

Intellectual property rights 

The TRIPS Agreement is a key international instrument for the protection of IP and is of relevance to e-commerce. The technologies that underpin the Internet and enable digital commerce such as software, routers, networks, switches, and user interfaces are protected by IP. In addition, e-commerce transactions can involve digital products with IP-protected content, such as e-books, software, or blueprints for 3D -printing. As IP licences often regulate the usage rights for such intangible digital products, the TRIPS Agreement and the international IP Conventions provide much of the legal infrastructure for digital trade.

IP-related issues are also being discussed in the JSI. Submitted proposals include text on limiting requests to the access or transfer of source code. The source code or the data analysis used in the operation of programmes or services is often legally protected by IP law through copyright, patent, or trade secret provisions. The main goal of the JSI proposals on access to source code is to prevent members from requiring access or transfer of the source code owned by a national of another member. Some exceptions to this general prohibition have also been proposed. For example, for software that is used for critical infrastructures and public procurement transactions.

Arbitration 
One of the core activities of the WTO is to provide a dispute settlement mechanism through which WTO members can enforce their rights under the WTO agreements. A trade dispute arises when a member considers that another member is violating a legal provision or commitment made under any of the WTO agreements. Disputes under this mechanism have involved Internet-related issues, telecommunications services, electronic payment services, IP rights, ICT products, and online gambling. The US – Gambling case concerning the cross-border supply of online gambling and betting services is particularly relevant to e-commerce.
Cybersecurity 

Cybersecurity issues have been addressed in several WTO bodies. For example, the TBT Committee has discussed national cybersecurity regulations applicable to ICT products and their potential impact on trade. In the TBT Committee, to date, WTO members have raised over 15 specific trade concerns related to cybersecurity regulations. Some of the specific issues discussed include how cybersecurity regulations discriminating against foreign companies and technologies can have a negative impact on international trade in ICT products. Proposals on cybersecurity have also been tabled in the JSI on e-commerce. Discussions have focused on strengthening national capacities for incident response and collaboration mechanisms; encouraging co-operation; and sharing of information and best practices on addressing incidents. Cybersecurity has also been discussed in the context of cross-border data flows and electronic authentication.

World Health Organization

Acronym: WHO

Address: Avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland

Website: https://who.int

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialised agency of the UN whose role is to direct and co-ordinate international health within the UN system.

As a member state organisation, its main areas of work include health systems, the promotion of health, non-communicable diseases, communicable diseases, corporate services, preparedness, and surveillance and response.

The WHO assists countries in co-ordinating multi-sectoral efforts by governments and partners (including bi- and multilateral meetings, funds and foundations, civil society organisations, and the private sector) to attain their health objectives and support their national health policies and strategies.

Digital Activities

The WHO has strengthened its approach to data by ensuring this strategic asset has a dedicated division: the Division of Data, Analytics and Delivery for Impact. This has helped strengthen data governance by promoting sound data principles and accountability mechanisms, as well as ensuring that the necessary policies and tools are in place that can be used by all three levels of the organisation and can be adopted by member states. Digital health and innovation are high on the WHO’s agenda; it is recognised for its role in strengthening health systems through the application of digital health technologies for consumers/people and healthcare providers as part of achieving its vision of health for all.

The WHO also established the new Department of Digital Health and Innovation in 2019 within its Science Division. Particular attention is paid to: Promoting global collaboration and advancing the transfer of knowledge on digital health; advancing the implementation of national digital health strategies; strengthening the governance for digital health at the global, regional, and national levels; and advocating for people-centered health systems that are enabled by digital health.  These strategic objectives have been developed in consultation with member states throughout 2019 and 2020, and will be submitted for adoption to the upcoming 2021 World Health Assembly.

The Division of Data Analytics and Delivery for Impact and the Department of Digital Health and Innovation work closely together to strengthen links between data and digital issues, as well as data governance efforts. Digital health technologies, standards, and protocols enable health systems to integrate the exchange of health data within the health system. Coupled with data governance, ethics, and public health data standards, digital health and innovation enable the generation of new evidence and knowledge through research and innovation and inform health policy through public health analysis.

More recently, the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated the WHO’s digital response, collaboration, and innovation in emergencies. Some examples include: Collaborating to use artificial intelligence (AI) and data science in analysing and delivering information in response to the COVID-19 ‘infodemic’ (i.e. overflow of information, including misinformation, in an acute health event which prevents people from accessing reliable information about how to protect themselves);  promoting cybersecurity in the health system, including hospitals and health facilities; learning from using AI, data science, digital health, and innovation in social science research, disease modelling, and simulations, as well as supporting the epidemiological response to the pandemic; and producing vaccines and preparing for the equitable allocation and distribution of vaccines.

The WHO is a leader among Geneva-based international organisations in the use of social media, through its awareness-raising  for health-related issues. The WHO was awarded first prize at the Geneva Engage Awards in 2016, and second prize in 2017.

The WHO/International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Focus Group on artificial intelligence for health (FG-AI4H) works to establish a standardised assessment framework for the evaluation of AI-based methods for health, diagnosis, triage, or treatment decisions. https://www.itu.int/en/ITU-T/focusgroups/ai4h/

Be He@lthy, Be Mobile: Accessing the right information, when one needs it, is at the heart of this WHO-ITU initiative. In support of national governments, Be He@lthy, Be Mobile is helping millions of people quit tobacco, control diabetes and cervical cancer, help people at risk of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and care for older persons.

Digital policy issues

Data and artificial intelligence 

The response to COVID-19 reinforced the centrality of data and AI for the health sector and the WHO’s activities. Data and AI policies are covered by the following instruments.

Digital Standards: Integration of health information exchange (HIE) 

The WHO collaborates with health information exchange standardisation bodies and organisations, such as HIE and HL7 (Health Level 7), to promote sustainable investment into interoperable digital health technologies and systems. Digital health technologies, standards, and protocols enable health systems to integrate the exchange of health data within the health system. Coupled with data governance, ethics, and public health data standards, digital health and innovation enable the generation of new evidence and knowledge through research and innovation, and inform health policy through public health analysis.

Digital Accelerator Kits and computable guidelines: Ensure countries can effectively benefit from investments in digital systems, ‘digital accelerator kits’ are designed to ensure the WHO’s evidence-based guideline content is accurately reflected in the systems countries are adopting. Digital Accelerator Kits distill WHO guidelines and operational resources into a standardised format that can be more easily incorporated into digital tracking and decision support systems. This in turn enables standardised health information exchange within the health system.

WHO Guideline: recommendations on digital interventions for health system strengthening: Recommendations based on a critical evaluation of the evidence on emerging digital health interventions that are contributing to health system improvements, based on an assessment of the benefits, harms, acceptability, feasibility, resource use, and equity considerations.

Classification of digital health interventions v1.0 – A shared language to describe the uses of digital technology for health: The classification of digital health interventions categorises the different ways in which digital and mobile technologies are being used to support health system needs. A shared and standardised vocabulary was recognised as necessary to identify gaps and duplication, evaluate effectiveness, and facilitate alignment across different digital health implementations

Electromagnetic field and health protection 

As the digital reality moves from ‘cable’ to wireless traffic (wi-fi and mobile), a growing number of concerns are emerging on the impact of electromagnetic fields on human health. This technology has become part of the wider public debate and has given rise to conspiracy theories such as those that claim 5G spreads COVID-19. These concerns increase the importance of the WHO’s research and policy-making within a broader evidence-based discussion on the impact of wi-fi and mobile devices on health.

Model legislation for electromagnetic field protection (2006)

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers’ (IEEE) Standard for Safety Levels with Respect to Human Exposure to Radio Frequency Electromagnetic Fields, 3 kHz to 300 GHz

Online gaming 

Since 2018, gaming disorder has been included in the WHO’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD). While the negative impacts of online gaming on health are being increasingly addressed by national health policies, it has been recognised by some authorities, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), that some game-based devices could have a therapeutic effect. Given the fast growth of online gaming and its benefits and disadvantages, the implications on health are expected to become more relevant.

International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) (2018)

Domain names: The .health top-level domain name 

Health-related generic top-level domain (gTLD) names, in all languages, including ‘.health’, ‘.doctor’, and ‘.surgery’, should be operated in a way that protects public health and includes the prevention of further development of illicit markets of medicines, medical devices, and unauthorised health products and services.

Resolution WHA66.24: eHealth standardization and interoperability (2013)

Net neutrality 

The issue of net neutrality (the equal treatment of Internet traffic) could affect bandwidth and the stability of digital connections, especially for high-risk activities such as online surgical interventions. Thus, health organisations may be granted exceptional provisions, as the EU has already done, where health and specialised services enjoy exceptions regarding the principle of net neutrality.

Resolution WHA66.24: eHealth standardization and interoperability (2013)

Access 

The WHO uses digital technology intensively in its development of activities, ranging from building public health infrastructure in developing countries and immunisation to dealing with disease outbreaks. The organisation also integrates digital health interventions in its strategies for certain diseases. The WHO’s Global Observatory for e-Health[BRC2] aims to assist member states with information and guidance on practices and standards in the field of e-health. 

Cybersecurity 

The WHO has dedicated cybersecurity focal points, who are able to work with legal and licensing colleagues, that provide frameworks for the organisation to not only protect WHO data from various cyber-risks, but also provide technical advice to the WHO and members states on the secure collection, storage, and dissemination of data. Health facilities and health data have always been the target of cybercriminals; however, the COVID-19 crisis has brought into sharp focus the cybersecurity aspects of digital health.

Ransomware attacks threaten the proper functioning of hospitals and other healthcare providers. The global Wannacry ransomware attack in May 2017 was the first major attack on hospitals and disrupted a significant part of the UK’s National Health System (NHS). Ransomware attacks on hospitals and health research facilities have accelerated during the COVID-19 crisis.

Considering that data is often the main target of cyber-attacks, it should come as no surprise that most cybersecurity concerns regarding healthcare are centered around the protection of data. Encryption is thus crucial for the safety of health data: It both protects data from prying eyes and helps assuage the fears patients and consumers may have about sharing or storing sensitive information through the Internet.

Content policy: Infodemic 

An infodemic is an overflow of information, including misinformation, that prevents people from accessing reliable information; in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, it hampers the ability of people to know how to protect themselves. Our current infodemic cannot be eliminated, but it can be managed by: producing engaging reliable content and using digital, traditional media, and offline tools to disseminate it; engaging key stakeholder groups in co-operative content creation and dissemination; empowering communities to protect themselves; and promoting community and individual resilience against misinformation. Digital health technologies and data science can support these activities by: analysing the information landscape and social dynamics in digital and analog environments; to deliver messages; supporting fact-checking and countering misinformation; promoting digital health, media, and health literacy; and optimising the effectiveness of messages and their delivery through real time monitoring and evaluation (M&E), among others.

At the Munich Security Conference (15 February 2020), WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus stated: ‘We’re not just fighting an epidemic; we’re fighting an infodemic.’ This translated into many WHO initiatives to counter the infodemic, such as working with the public and the scientific community to develop a framework for managing infodemics; bringing the scientific community together for the first WHO infodemiology conference; the development of a draft research agenda on managing infodemics, co-operation with UN agencies and the AI community; promoting reliable WHO information through a co-ordinated approach with Google, Facebook, Twitter, and other major tech platforms and services; and campaigns to counter misinformation.

Digital tools

  • Emergency preparedness and response: The WHO maintains a portfolio of digital tools and methods for emergency preparedness and response, for example: GoData, Epidemic Intelligence from Open Sources (EIOS), and Ethical considerations to guide the use of digital proximity tracking technologies for COVID-19 contact tracing.
  • WHO Digital and Innovation for Health online community to fight COVID-19: a platform for discussion and sharing experiences and innovative responses related to the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Health Equity Monitor: a platform for health inequality monitoring which includes datatabases of disaggregated data; a handbook on health inequality monitoring; step-by-step manuals for national health inequality monitoring (generally and specifically for immunisation inequality monitoring);
  • Health Assessment Toolkit: software application that facilitates the assessment of health inequalities in countries. Inequality data can be visualised through a variety of interactive graphs, maps, and tables. Results can be exported and used for priority-setting and policy-making.
  • Harmonised Health Facility Assessment (HHFA): a comprehensive, external review tool for assessing whether health facilities have the appropriate systems in place to deliver services at required standards of quality.
  • District Health Information Software & Toolkit for Analysis and Use of Routine Health Facility Data: open source, web-based health management information system (HMIS) platform. The toolkit provides  standards and guidance for the analysis of Routine Health Information Surveys (RHIS) data for individual health programmes, as well as integrated analysis for general health service management.
  • WHO Health Data Hub (under development): a single repository of health data in the WHO and establish a data governance mechanism for member states.

Resources

  • Digital Health Atlas: The Digital Health Atlas is a global registry of implemented digital health solutions. It is open and available to anyone to register and contribute information about digital implementations. The registry provides a consistent way to document digital solutions, and offers functionalities in a web platform to assist technologists, implementers, governments, and donors for inventory, planning, co-ordinating, and using digital systems for health. The Digital Health Atlas includes a special focus on listing digital technologies related to the COVID-19 pandemic. The repository of information is open to all users to register projects, download project information, and connect with digital health practitioners globally. 
  •  Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS): registering all births and deaths, issues birth and death certificates, and compiles and disseminates vital statistics, including cause of death information. It may also record marriages and divorces.
  • WHO Classifications and Terminologies: operates a ‘one-stop-shop’ for WHO classifications and terminologies and is delivering and scaling use of terminologies and classifications.

The new Survey Count Optimise Review Enable (SCORE) for Health Data Technical Package:  published during one of the most data-strained public health crisis responses ever – that of the COVID-19 pandemic, score can guide countries to take action by providing a one-stop shop for best technical practices that strengthen health information systems, using universally accepted standards and tools.

The WHO has numerous platforms, instruments and monitoring mechanisms involving data exchanges and classification among its member states.

Monitoring health inequalities

The WHO’s digital and data efforts contributing to both sustainable development goal (SDG) 3 and Universal Health Coverage focus on identifying, understanding, and tracking progress in communities left behind. Measuring inequalities is crucial to identify differences in health between different population subgroups, which provides evidence for policies, programmes, and practices that tackle health inequities. Recognising this, the WHO has developed a number of tools and resources to build capacity for health inequality monitoring at global and national levels.

 All materials are publicly available through the WHO Health Equity Monitor, the WHO’s platform for health inequality monitoring, and include:

  • A large database of disaggregated data;
  • A handbook on health inequality monitoring;
  • Step-by-step manuals for national health inequality monitoring (generally and specifically for immunisation inequality monitoring);
  • Statistical codes for calculating disaggregated data using household survey data; and
  • A software application for assessing health inequalities (HEAT and HEAT Plus).

Building on these materials, the WHO delivers regular training workshops to build capacity for health inequality monitoring in WHO member states and regions.

The Health Equity Assessment Toolkit is a software application that facilitates the assessment of health inequalities in countries. Inequality data can be visualised through a variety of interactive graphs, maps, and tables. Results can be exported and used for priority-setting and policy-making.

There are two editions of this toolkit and further references are below:

  1. HEAT, the Built-In Database Edition, which contains the Health Equity Monitor database and
  2. HEAT Plus, the Upload Database Edition, which allows users to upload and work with their own databases.

Health Equity Monitor database: http://apps.who.int/gho/data/node.main.nHE-1540?lang=en

Health inequality monitoring handbook: https://www.who.int/data/gho/health-equity/handbook

Manual for health inequality monitoring: https://www.who.int/data/gho/health-equity/manual

Manual for health inequality monitoring in immunisation: https://www.who.int/data/gho/health-equity/manual_immunization

Statistical codes: https://www.who.int/data/gho/health-equity/statistical_codes

Health Equity Assessment Toolkit: https://www.who.int/data/gho/health-equity/assessment_toolkit

Capacity building: https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/16549716.2017.1419739

Global and national reports: https://www.who.int/data/gho/health-equity/publications

Harmonized Health Facility Assessment modules – digital data collection and analysis of health service quality

The Harmonised Health Facility Assessment (HHFA) modules represent a comprehensive, external review tool for assessing whether health facilities have the appropriate systems in place to deliver services at required standards of quality.

Availability and quality of health services are integral to universal health coverage (UHC) and contribute to achieving the SDGs. The HHFA modules provide an in-depth assessment of facility service availability and quality, based on global health service standards, and using standardised indicators, questionnaires, and methodologies. HHFA data contribute to health sector reviews, planning, and policy-making and enable evidence-based decision-making to support the strengthening of health service delivery in a country.

There are four HHFA modules: 1) service availability, 2) service readiness, 3) quality and safety of care, and 4) management and finance. A module is defined as a set of questions (in questionnaire format) that aim to collect information for a defined set of indicators for a specific disease, programme, or service management area.

The standardisation of indicators and data collection methods promotes the alignment of health facility survey approaches among partners and enables comparability of results over time and among geographic areas.

The modular approach enables countries to adapt the HHFA to their needs based on the selection of core and additional indicators and targeting of various health facility levels. The implementation of the HHFA requires health facility visits to collect data through a variety of methods including facility audits, record reviews, provider interviews, observation, and client interviews. The HHFA can be carried out as a census of all facilities or as a representative sample of facilities.

Data collection is conducted using hand-held devices and questionnaires configured in the Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro), a software package for entering, editing, tabulating, and disseminating data from censuses and surveys. A comprehensive digital data analysis platform is in development to enable the efficient and secure analysis of data and the calculation of indicators with automated visualisation and report-creation functions.

The HHFA modules comprise a comprehensive package of downloadable tools: reference manual, questionnaires, indicator inventory, CSPro data collection tool, data analysis platform, implementation guide, and training materials.

Civil Registration and Vital Statistics (CRVS)

Monitoring health trends often requires numerators and denominators, and where possible in real time. Key denominators include birth and death registrations, and data from censuses. This type of monitoring is increasingly using digital technologies.

Move information not people: The WHO advocates for the use of electronic devices for the notification of vital events (births and deaths). Local informants (community health workers or village chiefs) can use mobile devices (phones or tablets) to notify the health facility or civil registration office of a birth or death in the community.  However, the registration of a birth or death is more a legal act that must be done in the presence of the next of kin and/or with witnesses in some count

Geneva Internet Platform

Acronym: GIP

Address: WMO Building, 7bis, Avenue de la Paix, CH-1202 Geneva, Switzerland

Website: https://giplatform.org

Stakeholder group: NGOs and associations

The Geneva Internet Plaform (GIP) is a Swiss initiative operated by DiploFoundation that strives to engage digital actors, foster digital governance, and monitor digital policies.

It aims to provide a neutral and inclusive space for digital policy debates, strengthen the participation of small and developing countries in Geneva-based digital policy processes, support activities of Geneva-based Internet governance (IG) and ICT institutions and initiatives, facilitate research for an evidence-based, multidisciplinary digital policy, bridge various policy silos, and provide tools and methods for in situ and online engagement that could be used by other policy spaces in International Geneva and worldwide. The GIP’s activities are implemented based on three pillars: a physical platform in Geneva, an online platform and observatory, and a dialogue lab.