World Intellectual Property Organization

Acronym: WIPO

Address: 34, chemin des Colombettes, CH-1211 Geneva 20, Switzerland

Website: https://wipo.int

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

The World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) is a UN agency functioning as a global forum for intellectual property (IP) related services (patents, copyright, trademarks, and designs), policy, information, and co-operation. The organisation was established in 1967 and it currently has 188 member states, in addition to over 200 observers representing non-governmental organisations and intergovernmental organisations.

WIPO’s activities are focused on: Contributing to the development of a balanced and effective international IP system; providing global services to protect IP at a global level and to resolve disputes; sharing of knowledge and information on IP-related issues; and encouraging co-operation and offering capacity building programmes ​aimed to enable countries to use IP for economic, social, and cultural development.

Digital Activities

WIPO provides domain name dispute resolution services, through its Arbitration and Mediation Center. In this regard, the organisation has developed (in collaboration with the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN)) the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) – the main domain name dispute resolution mechanism for conflicts on the right to register and use domain names under certain generic top level domains (gTLDs). The Center also administers disputes under a number of specific policies adopted by individual gTLD registries and provides domain name dispute resolution services for over 70 country code top level domains (ccTLDs).

The organisation administers the WIPO Copyright Treaty and the WIPO Performances and Phonogram Treaty (known as the ‘Internet Treaties’), which contain international norms aimed at preventing unauthorised access to and use of creative works on the Internet or other digital networks. It also carries out research and provides recommendations on issues related to the protection of intellectual property rights in the digital environment (especially with regards to copyright and trademarks).

Digital policy issues

Artificial intelligence 

WIPO is paying particular attention to the interplay between artificial intelligence (AI) and IP. In December 2019, it published a draft issue paper on AI and IP, which was later revised based on public comments and re-published in May 2020. The paper explores the (potential) impact of AI on IP policies in areas such as copyright and related rights, patents, trademarks, designs, and overall IP administration. Building on this exploratory work, WIPO is leading a Conversation on IP and AI, bringing together governments and other stakeholders, to discuss the impact of AI on IP. WIPO is also working on an AI and IP strategy clearing house, through which it is collating government instruments (strategies, regulations, etc.) that are relevant to AI and IP. The organisation is additionally developing and deploying AI solutions in the context of various activities; relevant examples are the WIPO Translate and WIPO Brand Image Search, which use AI for automated translation and image recognition.

Alternative dispute resolution 

WIPO’s activities in regard to the Domain Name System revolve around the protection of trademarks and related rights in the context of domain names. It has developed, together with ICANN, the UDRP. Under this policy, WIPO’s Arbitration and Mediation Centre provides dispute resolution services for second level domain name registrations under gTLDs to which the UDPR applies. The Arbitration and Mediation Centre also administers disputes under specific policies adopted by some gTLD registries (e.g. .aero, .asia, .travel). In addition, the Centre offers domain name dispute resolution services for over 70 country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). WIPO has developed a ccTLD Program, with the aim to provide advice to many ccTLD registries on the establishment of dispute resolution procedures. WIPO also contributes to the work carried out within the framework of ICANN in regard to the strengthening of existing trademark rights protection mechanisms or the development of new such mechanisms.

Intellectual property rights 

Trademarks: WIPO has long been involved in issues related to the protection of trademarks in the context of the Domain Name System. The first phase of the WIPO Internet Domain Name Process, carried out in 1991, explored trademark abuse in second-level domain names, and led to the adoption, by ICANN, of the UDRP. WIPO has also contributed to the development of several trademark rights protection mechanisms applicable to generic top-level domains  (such as legal rights objections, the Trademark Clearinghouse, and the uniform rapid suspension system). The WIPO Arbitration and Mediation Centre administers trademark-related dispute resolution cases for several gTLDs and ccTLDs.

Copyright: WIPO is actively contributing to international discussions on the protection of copyright in the digital environment. The organisation administers the ‘Internet Treaties’, which contain international norms aimed at preventing unauthorised access to and use of creative works on the Internet or other digital networks. Among others, the treaties clarify that existing IP rights apply on the Internet, but also introduce new ‘online rights’. WIPO also carries out research and organises seminars and other meetings on aspects concerning challenges and possible solutions for the protection of copyright and related rights in the digital era.

Liability of intermediaries 

Given WIPO’s concerns with regard to the protection of copyright and related rights on the Internet, the organisation is exploring issues related to the roles and responsibilities of Internet intermediaries when it comes to online copyright infringements. The organisation carries out or commissions research and publishes studies on the relationship between copyright and Internet intermediaries (such as comparative analysis of national approaches of the liability of Internet intermediaries), and organises events (seminars, workshops, sessions at the World Summit on the Information Society Forum and Internet Governance Forum meetings, etc.) aimed at facilitating multistakeholder discussions on the potential liability of Internet intermediaries in relation to copyright infringements.

Sustainable development 

WIPO is of the view that IP is a critical incentive for innovation and creativity, and, as such, a key to the success of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The organisation works to enable member states to use the IP system to drive the innovation, competitiveness, and creativity needed to achieve the SDGs. It does so, for instance, through supporting countries in their efforts to build an innovative IP ecosystem, providing legislative advice on updating national IP laws, and supporting judiciary systems in keeping up with technological innovation. WIPO’s contribution to the implementation of the Agenda 2030 is guided by its Development Agenda.

Climate change 

WIPO’s Global Challenges programme brings together various stakeholders to explore issues related to green technologies and the environment. For instance, it hosts WIPO Green, a multistakeholder platform aimed to promote innovation and diffusion of green technologies, and it provides analysis of relevant IP issues to facilitate international policy dialogue.

Digital tools

WIPO is using multiple digital tools in relation to its services. Below are some examples:

  • WIPO Match – platform that matches seekers of specific IP-related development needs with potential providers offering resources
  • WIPO Proof – a service that provides a date- and time-stamped digital fingerprint of any file
  • Madrid e-services – online tools and resources
  • Electronic Forum – enables the electronic distribution and submission by email of comments concerning preliminary draft working documents and draft reports.
  • WIPO Academy, which also includes an eLearning Centre
  • Platforms for online meetings (not so clear which platform(s) WIPO is using)

Global Blockchain Business Council

Address: 20 Rue De-Candolle, 1205 Geneva, Switzerland

Website: https://gbbcouncil.org/

Stakeholder group: NGOs and associations

The Global Blockchain Business Council (GBBC) was created in 2017 with the aim to advance global understanding and adoption of blockchain technology. It does so by engaging and educating business leaders, regulators, and gloal decision makers on how to harness blockchain to create more secure, equitable, and functional societies.

The Council brings together over 30 companies that are committed to the belief that blockchain technology can change the way in which business is done. Through it activities, the GBBC intends to help maximise the benefits of blockchain for industry and society, and assist businesses, governments, and organisations understand that blockchain will enable them to ensure data integrity and create records, transactions, and systems that are secure, transparent, and more resilient againt manipulation and corruption.

European Broadcasting Union

Acronym: CSTD

Address: Palais des Nations, Geneva

Website: https://unctad.org/en/Pages/cstd.aspx

The Commission on Science and Technology for Development (CSTD) is a subsidiary of the UN Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC). It was established to advise the UN General Assembly on science and technology issues through analysis and appropriate policy recommendations. It is the centre of the UN for science, technology, and innovation for development.

Under the mandate given by ECOSOC, the CSTD leads the follow-up to the outcomes of the World Summit on the information Society (WSIS) and advises ECOSOC accordingly, including through the elaboration of recommendations aimed at furthering the implementation of the WSIS outcomes.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) is responsible for the substantive servicing of the CSTD.

Digital activities

The CSTD reviews progress made in the implementation of and follow-up to the WSIS outcomes at the regional and international levels, and prepares draft resolutions for ECOSOC. These draft resolutions tackle issues ranging from access to the Internet and information and communication technologies (ICTs) to the use of ICTs in mitigating climate change. At its annual sessions and intersessional panels, the CSTD also addresses themes such as science, technology, and innovation for sustainable cities and communities; ICTs for inclusive social and economic development; capacity development; Internet broadband for inclusive societies; and smart cities and infrastructure.

Digital policy issues

Artificial intelligence 
As part of its work on assessing the impact of technological change on inclusive and sustainable development, the CSTD is also exploring the role of frontier technologies including artificial intelligence (AI). At its 22nd session, the CSTD pointed out that AI and other frontier technologies offer significant opportunities to accelerate progress in achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs), while also posing new challenges (e.g. disrupting labour markets, exacerbating or creating new inequalities, and raising ethical questions). The CSTD is focusing its 2019-2020 intersessional work on digital frontier technologies, such as AI, big data, and robotics. For 2021, the CSTD has chosen another digital technology – blockchain for sustainable development – as a priority theme for its work.

  • Harnessing rapid technological change for inclusive and sustainable development (2020) (report for the 23rd CSTD session)
  • CSTD Dialogue which brings together leaders and experts to address the question: ‘What must be done to ensure that the potential offered by science, technology, and innovation (STI) towards achieving the SDGs is ultimately realised?’ This dialogue also aims to contribute to ‘rigorous thinking on the opportunities and challenges of STI in several crucial areas including gender equality, food security and poverty reduction.’
  • Articles on the webpage explore AI-related issues, such as the role of AI in health and a principled approach to AI (written by actors from different stakeholder groups).

 

Access 
During its annual sessions and intersessional panels, as well as in its draft resolutions for ECOSOC, the CSTD tackles aspects related to the digital divide, and outlines the need for further progress in addressing the impediments that developing countries face in accessing new technologies. It often underlines the need for co-ordinated efforts among all stakeholders to bridge the digital divide in its various dimensions: access to infrastructure, affordability, quality of access, digital skills, gender gap, and others. To this aim, the CSTDn recommends policies and actions to improve connectivity and access to infrastructure, affordability, multilingualism and cultural preservation, digital skills and digital literacy, capacity development, and appropriate financing mechanisms.

Sustainable development 
As the UN centre for science, technology, and innovation for development, the CSTD analyses the impact of digital technologies on sustainable development (assessing opportunities, risks, and challenges), including from the perspective of the ‘leaving no one behind’ principle. The CSTD also works to identify strategies, policies, and actions to foster the use of technology to empower people (especially vulnerable individuals and groups) and ensure inclusiveness and equality. In addition, it acts as a forum for strategic planning, sharing of good practices, and providing foresight about emerging and disruptive technologies.

CSTD intersessional panel meeting – November 2019 (final report.)

Capacity development 
Capacity development is one of the recurring themes that appear in draft resolutions prepared by the CSTD on the implementation of and follow-up to the WSIS outcomes. The CSTD often emphasises the need for countries and other stakeholders to focus on capacity development policies and actions to further enhance the role of the Internet as a catalyst for growth and development. Strengthening the capacity of stakeholders to participate in Internet governance processes is another objective the CSTD has been calling for, especially in regard to the Internet Governance Forum (IGF).

 

Interdisciplinary approaches 
The CSTD was mandated to review the IGF process and suggest improvements. To this aim, the Working Group on Improvements to the IGF was established and a report recommending a number of action items regarding the IGF was delivered in 2012. The CSTD was also entrusted with the mandate to initiate discussions about enhanced co-operation in Internet governance. It convened two working groups on enhanced co-operation (2013–2014 and 2016–2018); neither group managed to finalise recommendations on how to operationalise enhanced co-operation due to a lack of consensus among their members.

Digital tools

UNCTAD is in charge of servicing the CSTD. As such, digital tools used by the CSTD (e.g. platform for online meetings, social media for communications purposes) are also employed for CSTD-related purposes.

The South Centre

Address: Chem. de Balexert 7-9, 1219 Genève, Switzerland

Website: https://southcentre.int

Established in 1995, the South Centre is an intergovernmental policy research think tank composed of and accountable to developing country member states. It conducts research on key policy development issues and supports developing countries to effectively participate in international negotiating processes that are relevant to the achievement of the sustainable development goals (SDGs). The South Centre promotes the unity of the Global South in such processes while recognising the diversity of national interests and priorities.

The South Centre works on a wide range of issues relevant to countries in the Global South and the global community in general,  such as sustainable development, climate change, South-South co-operation, innovation and intellectual property,  access to medicines, health, trade, investment agreements, international tax co-operation, human rights, and gender.

Within the limits of its capacity and mandate, the South Centre also responds to requests for policy advice and for technical and other support from its members and other developing countries.

The South Centre has observer status in a number of international organisations.

Digital Activities

Innovation and development are one of the issue areas that the South Centre works on. As part of its efforts within this domain, it focuses on information technologies. Moreover, digital issues are also tackled in the domain of, inter alia, taxation and the digital economy, data governance, e-commerce, and the 4th industrial revolution.

The South Centre has produced deliverables/research outputs in the following areas: digital and financial inclusion, digital economy, digital taxation, digital industrialisation, and digital trade, among others.

Digital policy issues

Sustainable development 

The South Centre has delved into the interplay between digital technologies and development on several occasions through its research outputs. In 2006, it published an analytical note titled ‘Internet Governance for Development’. The document tackled the interplay between development and technology arguing that affordable access to the Internet allows for better education opportunities, greater access to information, improved private and public services, and stronger cultural diversity. More specifically, the document provided recommendations on issues such as openness (e.g. leaving the policy space open for developing countries), diversity (e.g. multilingualism), and security (e.g. funding of Computer Security Incident Response Teams (CSIRTs) in order to maximise the outcomes of discussions for developing countries at the Internet Governance Forum (IGF)).

A year later, the South Centre published the research paper ‘Towards a Digital Agenda for Developing Countries’, in which it looked into the conditions, rights, and freedoms necessary for developing countries to benefit from digital and Internet resources. By bringing together several different strands of ongoing discussions and analyses at the national and international levels, it aims to provide a direction for further research and policy analysis by laying the groundwork and creating awareness of the relevance and scope of digital and Internet content for policymakers in developing countries.

In 2020, the South Centre has continued to research the impact of digital technologies in the context of development. Its research paper ‘The Fourth Industrial Revolution in Developing Nations: Challenges and Roadmap’ tackles trends in emerging technologies such as big data, robotics, and Internet of things (IoT), and identifies challenges, namely, the lack of infrastructure, a trained and skilled workforce, scalability, and funding faced by developing countries. It then goes on to propose a strategic framework for responding to the 4th industrial revolution, which focuses on capacity building, technology incubations, scientific development, and policy-making.

In light of the ongoing global health pandemic, the South Centre as part of its publication series ‘SouthViews’, shared perspectives of developing countries on digital health. The article uses the example of the adoption of digital technologies in healthcare in Pakistan, and how the COVID-19 crisis advanced further the development of digital health.

E-commerce and trade 

The digital economy is another issue researched by the South Centre in the context of development. For instance, in 2017 it published an analytical note ‘The WTO’s Discussions on Electronic Commerce’, in which it explored the stance of developing countries (i.e. readiness in terms of infrastructure, upskilling, etc.) to engage in cross-border e-commerce. Among other things, it highlighted challenges such as low information technology (IT) adoption, and the lack of electricity supply that limit the uptake of e-commerce activities in Africa for instance. In another analytical note published that same year, it tackled the impact of the digital economy on ‘Micro, small and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs)’, and looked into the type of e-commerce rules that could best serve the interests of MSMEs.

More recently, it addressed issues pertaining to regulation of the digital economy in developing countries, namely, the future of work, market dynamics, and data and privacy protection.

The South Centre also provides analyses and organised many meetings in early 2020 to discuss issues such as the World Trade Organization (WTO) E-Commerce Moratorium and the Joint Statement Initiative (JSI) plurilateral discussions on e-commerce.

In addition to publications, the South Centre organises events within this field such as a workshop on ‘E-commerce and Domestic Regulation’, a technical session on ‘South-South Digital Cooperation to Boost Trade Competitiveness’, and a high-level event on ‘South-South Digital Cooperation for Industrialization’.

The South Centre is also monitoring developments and participating in discussions in the field and across international organisations in Geneva, including the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) eTrade for All initiative.

Taxation 

A South Centre policy brief sheds light on some of the implications for developing countries concerning the new international taxation global governance structure and the ongoing corporate tax reform process under the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Inclusive Framework on Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) Project umbrella in the context of the digitalisation of the economy.  Policy responses undertaken are briefly summarised in a ‘SouthViews’ article and elaborated in detail in a research paper by the South Centre Tax Initiative (SCTI). The SCTI also submitted its comments on the OECD Secretariat’s Proposal for a “Unified Approach” under Pillar One and on the session paper relating to tax consequences of the digitalised economy and– issues of relevance for developing countries to be discussed at the 20th Session of the UN Committee of Experts on International Cooperation on Tax Matters.

Intellectual property rights 

Intellectual property (IP) issues such as digital rights management and international legal frameworks for copyright in the digital age in the context of digital transformation have also been subject to South Centre research.

In June 2019, it published a policy brief on ‘Intellectual Property and Electronic Commerce: Proposals in the WTO and Policy Implications for Developing Countries’, in which it gave an overview of discussions within the WTO on IP and its potential implications for the digital economy.

Artificial intelligence (AI) was also tackled through the lens of IP. In an input on the draft issues paper on IP policy and AI submitted to the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the South Centre provides a number of recommendations which, among other things, underscore that particularities of AI and IP policy in developing countries and capacity building, including South-South dynamics that should be tackled in the final draft of the issues paper.

In September 2020, the South Centre also published a research paper entitled ‘Data in legal limbo: Ownership, sovereignty, or a digital public goods regime?’.

Digital Tools

A Public Health Approach to Intellectual Property Rights’: a virtual help desk on the use of Trade-related aspects of Intellectual property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities for public health purposes A Public Health Approach to Intellectual Property Rights’: a virtual help desk on the use of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities for public health purposes https://ipaccessmeds.southcentre.int/

South Centre Tax Initiative: https://taxinitiative.southcentre.int/

Social Media: Twitter: @South_Centre ; YouTube: SouthCentre GVA; Flickr: South Centre; LinkedIn

The South Centre has a general and specific e-mailing lists.

Future of Meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

In light of the COVID-19 global pandemic, the South Centre has increasingly used Zoom and Microsoft Teams for online meetings and webinars.

The South Centre organised a webinar on ‘The COVID-19 Pandemic: Intellectual Property Management for Access to Diagnostics, Medicines and Vaccines’ and a series of webinars on COVID-19 and development, which are as follows:

  1. Energy for sustainable development in Africa in the post-COVID world – looking for the ‘New Normal’

Webinar 1: COVID-19 impact actions across Africa. First-hand information from policymakers and leading experts

  1. Energy for sustainable development in Africa in the post-COVID world – looking for the ‘New Normal’

Webinar 2: Sustainable Energy for Africa: transition through growth. How to boost output, improve access and reduce impact on the nature and society? Technologies, scenarios, strategies, sources of finance and business models.

  1. Tax Policy Options For Funding the Post-COVID Recovery in the Global South
  2. Responsible Investment for Development and Human Rights: Assessing Different Mechanisms to Face Possible Investor-State Disputes from COVID-19 Related Measures

The South Centre also organised a webinar titled Reflexiones sobre la Judicialización de la Salud en America Latina’.

Swiss Digital Initiative

Address: c/o Campus Biotech, Chemin des Mines 9 1202 Geneva

Website: https://www.swiss-digital-initiative.org/

The Swiss Digital Initiative aims to bridge the gap between principles and practice and to safeguard ethical standards in the digital world through specific projects. It brings together academia, government, civil society and business to find solutions to strengthen trust in digital technologies and in the actors involved in ongoing digital transformation. The initiative has a global focus and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. It was initiated by the association DigitalSwitzerland and under the patronage of Federal Councillor Ueli Maurer. The first project of the initiative is the development of a Digital Trust Label.

International Organization for Standardization

Acronym: ISO

Address: Chem. de Blandonnet 8, 1214 Vernier, Switzerland

Website: https://iso.org

Stakeholder group: International and regional organisations

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is a non-governmental international organisation composed of 165 national standard-setting bodies that are either part of governmental institutions or mandated by their respective governments. Each national standard-setting body therefore represents a member state.

After receiving a request from a consumer group or an industry association, ISO convenes an expert group tasked with the creation of a particular standard through a consensus process.

ISO develops international standards across a wide range of industries, including technology, food, and healthcare, in order to ensure that products and services are safe, reliable, of good quality, and ultimately, facilitate international trade. As such, it acts between the public and the private sector.

To date, ISO has published more than 22 000 standards.

Digital Activities

A large number of the international standards and related documents developed by ISO are related to information and communication technologies (ICTs), such as the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) that was created in 1983 and established a universal reference model for communication protocols. The organisation is also active in the field of emerging technologies including blockchain, the Internet of Things (IoT), and artificial intelligence (AI).

The standards are developed by various technical committees dedicated to specific areas including information security, cybersecurity, privacy protection, AI, and intelligent transport systems.

Digital policy issues

Artificial intelligence 

The joint technical committee of ISO and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) for AI is known as ISO/IEC JTC1/SC 42 Artificial intelligence and is responsible for the development of standards in this area. To date, it has published one standard specifically pertaining to AI with 18 others in development.

ISO/IEC TR 24028 provides an overview of trustworthiness in AI systems, detailing the associated threats and risks associated and addresses approaches on availability, resiliency, reliability, accuracy, safety, security, and privacy.

The standards under development include those that cover: concepts and terminology for AI (ISO/IEC 22989); bias in AI systems and AI-aided decision-making (ISO/IEC TR 24027); AI risk management (ISO/IEC 23894); a framework for AI systems using machine learning (ISO/IEC 23053); and the assessment of machine learning classification performance (ISO/IEC TS 4213).

Up-to-date information on the technical committee (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Cloud computing 

ISO and IEC also have a joint committee for standards related to cloud computing which currently has 19 published standards and a further 7 in development.

Of those published, two standards of note include ISO/IEC 19086-1, which provides an overview, foundational concepts, and definitions for a cloud computing service level agreement framework, and ISO/IEC 17789, which specifies the cloud computing reference architecture.

Standards under development include those on health informatics (ISO/TR 21332.2); the audit of cloud services (ISO/IEC 22123-2.2); and data flow, categories, and use (ISO/IEC 19944-1).

Up-to-date information on the technical committee (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Internet of things 

Recognising the ongoing developments in the field of IoT, ISO has a number of dedicated standards both published and in development, including those for intelligent transport systems (ISO 19079), future networks for IoT (ISO/IEC TR 29181-9), unique identification for IoT (ISO/IEC 29161), Internet of Media Things (ISO/IEC 23093-3), trustworthiness of IoT (ISO/IEC 30149), and industrial IoT systems (ISO/IEC 30162).

 IoT security is addressed in standards such as ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 27002, which provide a common language for governance, risk, and compliance issues related to information security.

 In addition, there are seven standards under development, some of which provide a methodology for the trustworthiness of an IoT system or service (ISO/IEC 30147); a trustworthiness framework (ISO/IEC 30149); the requirements of an IoT data exchange platform for various IoT services (ISO/IEC 30161); and a real-time IoT framework (ISO/IEC 30165).

 Up-to-date information on the ISO and IEC joint technical committee for IoT (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Telecommunications infrastructure 

ISO’s standardisation work in the field of telecommunications infrastructure covers areas such as planning and installation of networks (e.g. ISO/IEC 14763-2 and ISO/IEC TR 14763-2-1), corporate telecommunication networks (e.g. ISO/IEC 17343), local and metropolitan area networks (e.g. ISO/IEC/IEEE 8802-A), private integrated telecommunications networks (e.g. ISO/IEC TR 14475), and wireless networks. Next generation networks – packet-based public networks able to provide telecommunications services and make use of multiple quality of service enabled transport technology – are equally covered (e.g. ISO/IEC TR 26905).

ISO also has standards for the so-called future networks, which are intended to provide futuristic capabilities and services beyond the limitations of current networks, including the Internet.

Up-to-date information on the joint ISO and IEC technical committee that develops these standards (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Blockchain 

ISO has published three standards on blockchain and distributed ledger technologies: ISO/TR 23455 gives an overview of smart contracts in blockchain and distributed ledger technologies; ISO/TR 23244 tackles privacy and personally identifiable information protection; and ISO 22739 covers fundamental blockchain terminology respectively.

ISO also has a further ten standards on blockchain in development. These include those related to: security risks, threats and vulnerabilities (ISO/TR 23245.2); security management of digital asset custodians (ISO/TR 23576); taxonomy and ontology (ISO/TS 23258); legally-binding smart contracts (ISO/TS 23259); and guidelines for governance (ISO/TS 23635).

Up-to-date information on the technical committee (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Emerging technologies 

ISO develops standards in the area of emerging technologies. Perhaps the largest number of standards in this area are those related to robotics. ISO has more than 40 different standards either published or in development that cover issues such as: collaborative robots (e.g. ISO/TS 15066); safety requirements for industrial robots (e.g. ISO 10218-2); and personal care robots (e.g. ISO 13482).

Autonomous or so-called intelligent transport systems (ITS) standards are developed by ISO’s ITS Technical Committee and include those for forward vehicle collision warning systems (ISO 15623) and secure connections between trusted devices (ISO/TS 21185).

Standards are also being developed to address the use of virtual reality in learning, education, and training (e.g. ISO/IEC 23843) and the display device interface for augmented reality (ISO/IEC 23763).

Network security 

Information security and network security is also addressed by ISO and IEC standards. The ISO and IEC 27000 family of standards covers information security management systems and are used by organisations to secure information assets such as financial data, intellectual property, and employee information.

For example, ISO/IEC 27031 and ISO/IEC 27035 are specifically designed to help organisations respond, diffuse, and recover effectively from cyberattacks. ISO/IEC 27701 is an extension to ISO/IEC 27001 and ISO/IEC 27002 for privacy information management, and details requirements and guidance for establishing, implementing, maintaining, and continually improving a Privacy Information Management System (PIMS).

Network security is also addressed by standards on technologies such as the IoT, smart community infrastructures, medical devices, localisation and tracking systems, and future networks.

Up-to-date information on the joint ISO and IEC technical committee (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Encryption 

As more and more information (including sensitive personal data) is stored, transmitted, and processed online, the security, integrity, and confidentiality of such information becomes increasingly important. To this end, ISO has a number of standards for the encryption of data. For example, ISO/IEC 18033-1, currently under development, addresses the nature of encryption and describes certain general aspects of its use and properties. Other standards include ISO/IEC 19772 that covers authenticated encryption, ISO/IEC 18033-3 that specifies encryption systems (ciphers) for the purpose of data confidentiality, and ISO 19092 that allows for encryption of biometric data used for authentication of individuals in financial services for confidentiality or other reasons.

ISO also has standards that focus on identity-based ciphers, symmetric and asymmetric encryption, public key infrastructure, and many more related areas.

Data governance 

Big data is another area of ISO standardization, and around 80% of related standards are developed by the ISO/IEC AI committee. The terminology for big data-related standards is outlined in ISO/IEC 20546, while ISO/IEC 20547-3 covers big data reference architecture.

ISO/IEC TR 20547-2 provides examples of big data use cases with application domains and technical considerations and ISO/IEC TR 20547-5 details a roadmap of existing and future standards in this area. A further eight standards are in development and include those for big data security and privacy (ISO/IEC 27045), terminology used in big data within the scope of predictive analytics (ISO 3534-5), and data science life cycle (ISO/TR 23347).

Up-to-date information on the technical committee (e.g. scope, programme of work, contact details, etc.) can be found on the committee page.

Privacy and data protection 

Privacy and data protection in the context of ICTs is another area covered by ISO’s standardisation activities. One example is ISO/IEC 29101 which describes a privacy architecture framework.

Others include those for privacy-enhancing protocols and services for identification cards (ISO/IEC 19286); privacy protection requirements pertaining to learning, education, and training systems employing information technologies (ISO/IEC 29187-1); privacy aspects in the context of intelligent transport systems (ISO/TR 12859); and security and privacy requirements for health informatics (ISO/TS 14441).

Digital identities 

Digital signatures that validate digital identities help to ensure the integrity of data and authenticity of particulars in online transactions. This, therefore, contributes to the security of online applications and services. Standards to support this technology cover elements such as: anonymous digital signatures (e.g. ISO/IEC 20008-1 and ISO/IEC 20008-2); digital signatures for healthcare documents (e.g. ISO 17090-4 and ISO 17090-5); and blind digital signatures, which is where the content of the message to be signed is disguised, used in contexts where, for example, anonymity is required. Examples of such standards are ISO 18370-1 and ISO/IEC 18370-2.

Digital tools

ISO has developed an online browsing platform that provides up to date information on ISO standards, graphical symbols, publications, and terms and definitions.

Future of Meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

Any reference to holding meetings outside HQ?

Any reference to deliberation or decision making online?

  • Yes, ISO governance groups are also meeting virtually.

Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights

Address: Villa Moynier, Rue de Lausanne 120B, CP 1063, 1211 Geneva 1, Switzerland

Website: https://geneva-academy.ch

The Geneva Academy of International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights – a joint centre of the Faculty of Law at the University of Geneva and the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies – provides postgraduate education, conducts academic legal research and policy studies, and organises training courses and expert meetings. It concentrates on branches of international law that relate to armed conflict, protracted violence, and the protection of human rights.

Digital Activities

Digital issues – such as artificial intelligence (AI), new means and methods of warfare, and big data – raise a series of new challenges that can profoundly affect the respect for and protection afforded by international humanitarian law (IHL) and international human rights law (IHRL).

The Geneva Academy – via dedicated research and policy studies, publications, and events and expert meetings – addresses some of the legal aspects of these challenges and proposes ways to overcome them.

Via its three master’s programmes and training courses, it also trains tomorrow leaders and decision makers on the IHL and IHRL legal frameworks relevant to digital activities.

Its Geneva Human Rights Platform facilitates exchanges and discussions among various stakeholders – experts, practitioners, diplomats, and civil society – around digitalisation and human rights in order to provide policy advice on how to harness potential and mitigate danger in this rapidly changing field.

Digital policy issues

Human rights principles 

The Geneva Academy conducts research that examines the impact of new digital technologies on human rights. This research also assesses the extent to which existing international legal frameworks can continue to ensure the appropriate level of regulation, particularly in the face of ever-changing innovation.

In this context, the Geneva Academy co-operates with the University of Essex’s Human Rights Center in its Human Rights, Big Data and Technology Project. This five-year project, initiated in 2016, maps and analyses the challenges and opportunities presented by the use of big data and associated technologies from a human rights perspective. In this framework, the Geneva Academy notably conducts research on the application of regulatory mechanisms and modes of governance in relation to data collection, retention, and processing. The Geneva Academy also provides links to the project to Geneva-based audiences and ensures targeted dissemination activities.

In addition, the Geneva Academy provided support to the UN Special Rapporteur on the Rights to Freedom of Peaceful Assembly and of Association Clément Voule for his work in preparing his thematic report on the rights to freedom of peaceful assembly and of association in the digital age. This support notably included the organisation of a multistakeholder consultation in Nairobi and dialgoue with tech companies in Silicon Valley.

 The Geneva Human Rights Platform (GHRP), hosted by the Geneva Academy,  provides a neutral and dynamic forum of interaction for all stakeholders in the field of human rights to debate topical issues and challenges related to the functioning of the Geneva-based human rights system. Relying on academic research and findings, it works to enable various actors to be better connected, break silos, and hence, advance human rights.

 In this context, the GHRP facilitates exchanges and discussions on human rights and digitalisation with a view to move the focus of UN human rights mechanisms beyond the right to privacy or freedom of expression by exploring impact on all rights and formulate specific policy advice.

Emerging technologies 

New (military) technologies are set to revolutionise the ways wars are fought. Significant advances in the fields of cyberspace, AI, robotics, and space technology are at the forefront of contemporary geopolitical power struggles and are already bringing about major transformative shifts in military and humanitarian affairs. Undoubtedly, these developments will have far-reaching and not yet fully understood consequences for future humanitarian needs and the humanitarian and international legal framework at large.

Via a lecture series on disruptive military technologies, the Geneva Academy aims to promote legal and policy debate on new military technologies and to deepen the understanding of the different technological trends shaping the digital battlefield of the future.

Its past research also discussed where and when autonomous weapon systems (AWS), also called ‘killer robots’, may be used, and what the procedural legal requirements are in terms of the planning, conduct, and aftermath of AWS use.

Artificial intelligence 

 A recent research brief ‘Human Rights and the Governance of Artificial Intelligence’ addresses the opportunities and risk of AI for human rights, recalls that IHRL should occupy a central place in the governance of AI, and outlines two additional avenues to regulation: public procurement and standardisation.

Data governance 

The Rule of Law in Armed Conflicts (RULAC) is a unique online portal that identifies and classifies all situations of armed violence that amount to an armed conflict under international humanitarian law.

RULAC currently monitors 37 armed conflicts – which are regularly updated to include new developments – involving at least 52 states and many more armed non-state actors.

Digital Tools

Amid the COVID-19 crisis, the Geneva Academy shifted many of its activities online, including its events and teaching.

For the upcoming academic year (2020-2021), the Geneva Academy will resort to a hybrid teaching method with courses taught simultaneously in-class and online for its three master’s programmes.

In addition, its training and short courses courses will also be available online and in situ.

Future of Meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

  • Yes, amid the COVID-19 crisis, the Geneva Academy shifted many of its activities online, including its events and teaching. For the upcoming academic year (2020-2021), the Geneva Academy will resort to a hybrid teaching method with courses taught simultaneously in-class and online for its three master’s programmes. In addition, its training and short courses will also be available online and in situ.

University of Geneva

Acronym: UNIGE

Address: Rue De-Candolle 5, 1205 Genève, Switzerland

Website: https://unige.ch/

Stakeholder group: Academia & think tanks

The University of Geneva (UNIGE) offers more than 280 types of degrees and more than 250 continuing education programmes covering an extremely wide variety of fields across exact sciences, medicine, and humanities.

Digital activities

The university has incorporated digital technology into its strategy and appointed a vice-rector in charge of defining and piloting digital initiatives in the fields of education, research, and services to society. Its digital strategy focuses on three dimensions of digital technology: digital technology for teaching and research, digital solutions for open and connected science and digital expertise in the service fo society.

It also provides courses focusing on digital law, and it has been very active in research related to applied physics and quantum cryptography.

More information on the university’s digital strategy can be found at the dedicated page.

Digital policy issues

Capacity development 

 In an attempt to develop digital skills of its community, the University of Geneva has put in place a series of measures to meet the needs of its students, researchers, administrative staff, and other community members. To this end, the university offers a series of courses on digital technologies and related issues, participates in a number of projects, and provides training and workshops on particular digital skills and tools. It is also developing and deploying its Open Science roadmap.

Moreover, the university created a Digital Law Center (DLC) at the Faculty of Law over the course of implementing its digital strategy. The DLC provides courses focused on the Internet and law. It also organises its annual Digital Law Summer School, where participants can discuss digital law and policy issues such as cybersecurity, privacy, freedom of expression, and intellectual property with leading experts from academia and international organisations. Every year since 2016, the university has organised the Geneva Digital Law Research Colloquium (which is run by the DLC in co-operation with other leading academic centers, including the Berkman Klein Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University). This event is a scientific workshop that gives an opportunity to selected next generation digital law and policy researchers to present and discuss various digital policy issues such as freedom of expression online, copyright, and the Internet of Things with senior high level experts.

Leveraging its multidisciplinary culture, the university has recently created a transversal Data Science Competence Center aiming at federating competencies from all faculties and enabling cross-fertilisation between various disciplines to develop advanced research and services.

The university has also developed a Digital Innovation Incubation Programme that supports residency periods for its members at swissnex San Francisco to enhance the links with the Bay Area.

The university has created a portal for online and blended learning with a set of resources to help tutors prepare their courses and classes. Some of the resources are intended for self-training, while others provide users with training/coaching opportunities with University of Geneva e-learning and blended learning experts.

Digital tools

The university maintains an IT Service Catalogue where students can access all digital tools the university provides, such as the UNIGE Mobile App, UNIGE Portal, UNIGE’s data storage system, and many others.

The University of Geneva also offers a number of online courses.

 Future of Meetings

Any reference to online or remote meetings?

  • The university plans to extend its Zoom license, which was initially acquired for one semester, until the end of the 2020/2021 academic year. Some exams have taken place online.

Any reference to holding meetings outside HQ?

  • The university is using online platforms for e-conferences and plans to deploy them in order to provide alternatives to in-person meetings.